NOVEMBER 3 1914 – MONTENEGRO DECLARES WAR ON THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE; THE BATTLE OF KILIMANJARO; ARMENTIERES

Montenegro, a relatively tiny country on the Balkan peninsula, hoped like many other countries to come out ahead in the First World War, and she thus allied herself with neighboring Serbia (and thus Serbia’s Allies, including Britain, France and Russia) in the hopes of sharing in the possible fruits of victory against Austria-Hungary. The Russian declaration of war against the Ottoman Empire prompted a similar declaration by Montenegro on November 3 1914. The nation of Montenegro may have even held out some distant hope that land taken from the Ottoman Empire might be shared with them . . .

. .. . . . .

November 3 also saw a consequential though relatively minor action in a different theatre of the war.

British colonials in East Africa developed a plan to squeeze a German force between the pincers of a two-pronged movement around Mt. Kilamanjaro. Unfortunately, they underestimated both the German numbers and the strength of defensive tactics.

The British essentially led themselves into an ambush, and lost about 312 of their approximately 1,500 men before they retreated. The Germans lost about 109 of 686. Though essentially a small conflict, the decisiveness of the German victory greatly cooled the British colonials’ enthusiasm to prosecute a war against the German colonies.

. . .

Back on the Western front, battles were fought between and within battles. At this point, the sharpest fighting was occuring in Northern France and NorthWestern Belgium, and Franco-British and German armies battled each other in an attempt to gain each other’s Northern flank. Fighting had shifted slightly North from La Baseé to Armentières, where between October 13 and November 2, the British held off ferocious German attacks. It was another inconclusive struggle, as nearly 5,800 British fell versus about 11,300 Germans.

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